The paper was published in the Economic Modelling journal by
Ciaran Driver, Anna Grosman and Pasquale Scaramozzino from the School of Finance and Management, SOAS, University of
London and School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University.
The economics of dividend policy has focused on the single tight narrative that dividends keep managers honest,
mitigating concerns that they over-invest. This article provides a critique of that agency narrative, arguing that
pressure from short-term focused investors, executives and board members pushes the firm into preemptive actions
of returning too much cash via dividends.
Gender-API.com is gratefully acknowledged
We are also grateful to Markus Perl, CTO of Gender-API.com, for giving us access to the gender identifying
We're here to support you
We're always happy to help students, universities, charities and non-profit organizations with their research.
Feel free to contact us, in order to discuss how we can help you with your project. With Gender-API.com you can
large datasets in different formats with up to 10.000.000 records.
If you're an advanced user with a high request volume, you can switch to our new API V2.0 endpoint. The unified API offers way more speed and a more robust interface when querying multiple names in a single request.
Query up to 100 names in a single request
You can query up to 100 names in a single request and you can even mix the input data. For example, one name can be submitted with a country code, whereas another name
can be submitted without a country code - all in a single query.
Up to 200 times faster
We developed this new endpoint with a handfull of our biggest customers to met their requirements in speed,
stability and scaling. Compared to requests querying a single name only,
this API endpoint is up to 200 times faster.
You can now generate unique authentication tokens for all your projects. These tokens can be revoked at any time if necessary.
You can manage your authentication tokens here.
Take a test drive
To give you an idea of how easy it is to communicate with this JSON API endpoint, you can find an example on codepen.io.
Codepen.io will connect to your Gender-API.com account and give you a basic example of how the input data looks like and what the response will be.
Wasn't that easy? We just added square brackets around the two name objects and this tells our API "please also
return the result as an array".
You can query up to 100 names in a single REST API call.
You can also mix up gender queries for email addresses and for name. Genderizing an email address is as simple as
genderizing a first name. Simply add an email field to the request JSON instead
of a first_name field. The technology behind determining the gender of an email address is much mor difficult, though.
Different processing algorithms work together to give you the best results possible.
Is the existing V1.0 API deprecated now?
No, V1.0 delivers a very easy to integrate interface while V2.0 better suites customers with a large request volume need. Both will be developed and maintained equally.
View the API docs
We hope we were able to give you a short overview and a quick introduction to our new Genderize API. You can find all the technical information, advanced functions und examples in our API docs section. If you have some questions feel free to contact our team.
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